ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


Pulse Code Modulation Encoder

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra.

Abstract
In this paper, a system based model of “Pulse code modulation” (PCM) has been constructed for
voice frequencies. In this, a sample and hold circuit has been constructed that uses a triggering semiconductor
switch like MOSFET that samples the voice signals at a frequency of 8 KHz. The sampling is based upon the
Nyquist criteria. An ADC circuit is implemented to quantize and digitize the output of the sample and Hold circuit.
The outputs that are obtained are converted into 8-bit digital value per sample at a frequency of 8 KHz. Pulse
Code Modulation (PCM) is the most straightforward type of waveform coding among other change forms as like
Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation (APCM), Delta Modulation Lastly, a parallel to serial converter is designed at
an accurate time without any delay. Further an 8-bit shifting register along with decade counter and flip-flops are
provided to this waveform sequentially without delay

Key words: ADC, Decade counter, Flip-Flop, PCM, Sample, Hold circuit.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Shaheen Naaz
Articles by Shiva Pujan Jaiswal
Articles by K. Jaya Chitra
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
1. Anjum AD, Naseem M. Scenario of mycotoxins in poultry feed ingredients and finishedfeed in Pakistan. Biomin Gmbh, Industriestrasse, Herzogenburg, Austria, Newsletter,Biomin Natural 2000; 14: 6-8.
2. Bhatti BM. Incidence of poultry diseases and their importance in poultry production inPakistan. Pakistan Vet J 1989; 9: 194-197.
3. Butool AK, Hussin SS, Ahmed MA. Response of three commercial broiler chickensstrains to aflatoxins. J Islamic Academy of Sci 1990; 3: 27-29.
4. CAST. Mycotoxins: Risk in Plants, Animals and Humans. Task Force Report No. 139,Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), Ames, Iowa, USA 2003.
5. Devegowda G, Murthy TKN, Girish CK, et al. Mycotoxins in feed and feed ingredients:A survey in India. In: Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries,Proceedings of the 21st Annual Symposium (Suppl 1: Abstracts of posters presented).Lexington, Ky, May 22-25., 2005.
6. Glenn A E. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium species in animal feed. In: Morgavi DP, Riley RT(Eds), Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence, toxicity, control and economicimpact. Anim Feed SciTech 2007.
7. Hsieh DPH, Wong JJ. Pharmacokinetics and excretion of aflatoxins. In The Toxicologyof Aflatoxins. Human Health, Veterinary, and Agricultural Significance, pp.73–88 [EatonDL,Groopman JD editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press 1994.
8. Hussein HS, Brasel, JM. Review: Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins onhumans and animals. Toxicol 2001; 167: 110-134. [DOI via Crossref]   
9. Ito Y, Peterson SW, Wicklow DT, et al. Aspergillus pseudotamarii, a new aflatoxinproducing species in Aspergillus section Flavi Mycology Res 2001; 105: 233–239.
10. Jones BD. The role of aflatoxins in human and animal health. In: Proceedings ofNational Seminar on Hazards of Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health, April 5-61989, Karachi, Pakistan 1995.
11. Klich MA, Pitt JI. Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from A. parasiticus and otherclosely related species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 1988; 91: 99–108.
12. Leeson DR, Diaz GJ, Summers JD. Poultry Metabolic Disorders and Mycotoxins.University Books. Guelph, Canada 1995. [PMC Free Fulltext]   
13. LĂĽthy J, Zweifel U, Schlatter CH. Metabolism and tissue distribution of [14C] aflatoxinB1 in pigs. Food and Chemical Toxicol, 1980; 18: 253–256.
14. Morgavi D, Riley RT. An historical overview of field disease outbreaks known orsuspected to be caused by consumption of feeds contaminated with Fusarium toxins. In:Morgavi DP, Riley RT (Eds). Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence, toxicity,control and economic impact. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2007.
15. Pestka IJ. Deoxynivalenol: toxicity, mechanisms and health risks. In: Morgavi DP, RileyRT (Eds). Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence, toxicity, control andeconomic impact. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2007.
16. Pitt JI. Corrections to species names in physiological studies on Aspergillus flavus andAspergillus parasiticus. J Food Protection 1993; 56: 265–269.
17. Pitt JI, Hocking AD, Bhudhasamai K, et al. The normal mycoflora of commodities fromThailand. 2. Beans, rice, small grains and other commodities. Intern J Food Microbiology1994; 23: 35–53.
18. Pitt JI, Hocking AD. Fungi and Food Spoilage, 2nd Ed, Gaithersburg, MD, AspenPublishers 1997. [DOI via Crossref]   
19. Richard J. Sampling and sample preparation for mycotoxin analysis. Romer Labs Guideto Mycotoxins, 2. Romer Labs Inc., 1301 Stylemaster Drive, Union, MO 63084-1156,USA 2000.
20. Sabri MA, Siddique M, Khan MZ, Samad HA. Prevalence and pathology ofmycotoxicosis in young broiler chicks in and around Faisalabad. Pakistan Vet J 1989; 9:106-108.
21. Sargeant K, O’Kelly J. Carnaghan RBA, Allcroft R. The assay of a toxic principleincertain groundnut meals. Vet Record 1961; 73: 1219–1222.
22. Siddique M, Javed T, Sabri MA. Incidence and pathology of various poultry diseases. JAnim Health and Prod 1987; 9: 18-27.
23. Voss KA, Haschek WM. Fumonisins: toxicokinetics, mechanism of action andtoxicity.In: Morgavi DP, Riley RT (Eds). Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence,toxicity, control and economic impact. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2007.
24. Wei G. Biomin mycotoxin survey in the Asia-Pacific Region. Biomin Singapore LabReports 2004.
25. William JH, Phillips TD, Jolly PE, et al. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: Areview of toxicology, exposure potential health consequences and interventions. Am JClin Nutr 2004; 80:1106-1122.
26. Windholz M, Budavari S, Blumetti R, et al. The Merck Index, an encyclopedia ofchemicals, drugs and biological. 10th Ed, Merck & Co, Inc, NJ, USA 1983. [Pubmed]   
27. Wu F. Mycotoxins risk assessment for the purpose of setting International RegulatoryStandards. Environmental Sci & Tech 2004; 38 (15): 4049-4055. [DOI via Crossref]   
28. Wu F. Economic impact of fumonisin and aflatoxin regulations on global corn and peanutmarkets. In: Barug D, Bhatnager D, Van Egmond HP, Van der Kemp JW, VanOsenbruggen WA, Visconti A (Eds), The Mycotoxin Factbook, Food & Feed Topics,Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands 2006.
29. Wu F. Measuring the economic impacts of Fusarium toxins in animal feeds In: MorgaviDP, Riley RT (Eds), Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence, toxicity, controland economic impact. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007.
30. Zinedine A, Juan C, Soriano JM, et al. Limited survey for the occurrence of aflatoxins incereals and poultry feeds from Rabat, Morocco. Intern J Food Microbiology 115: 124-127 2007. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra. Pulse Code Modulation Encoder. JCR. 2020; 7(9): 1469-1473. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272


Web Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra. Pulse Code Modulation Encoder. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=5606 [Access: April 10, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra. Pulse Code Modulation Encoder. JCR. 2020; 7(9): 1469-1473. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra. Pulse Code Modulation Encoder. JCR. (2020), [cited April 10, 2021]; 7(9): 1469-1473. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272



Harvard Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra (2020) Pulse Code Modulation Encoder. JCR, 7 (9), 1469-1473. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272



Turabian Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra. 2020. Pulse Code Modulation Encoder. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (9), 1469-1473. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272



Chicago Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra. "Pulse Code Modulation Encoder." Journal of Critical Reviews 7 (2020), 1469-1473. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra. "Pulse Code Modulation Encoder." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.9 (2020), 1469-1473. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Shaheen Naaz, Shiva Pujan Jaiswal, K. Jaya Chitra (2020) Pulse Code Modulation Encoder. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (9), 1469-1473. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.272