ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman.

Abstract
Technology usage in Education 4.0 is highly influenced by Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0)
where the cyber-physical system, Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet system are adopted. This
phenomenon changes the teaching and learning (T&L) delivery methods. In alignment with the changes in T&L
delivery methods, academicians must prepare themselves with available tools that support education 4.0.
Although most higher education institutions and the player in the industry provide a lot of platforms and tools
that support the education 4.0, readiness of the academicians is important to make sure that the facility provided
are being fully utilized. Hence the need to measure academicians’ readiness in using the technology to ensure
the implementation of education 4.0 can be achieved successfully. For this purpose, we need an evaluated and
validated instrument to be used in measuring Technology Readiness Index (TRI). To achieve this, Exploratory
Factor Analysis (EFA) and Nomology Analysis are used for evaluation and validation of the TRI instrument
adopted from previous studies that has been tested in different population group (non-academician). The EFA of
this study on 19 items resulted in construction of five dimensions namely Optimism (Cronbach’s Alpha = .918),
Innovative (Cronbach’s Alpha = .924), Acceptance (Cronbach’s Alpha = .900), Discomfort (Cronbach’s Alpha
= .696) and Insecurity (Cronbach’s Alpha = .745). The correlation analysis indicates that, all the bivariate
relationship among the components were significantly correlated at least 95% confidence level. From this
analysis, the result shows that the instrument can be considered valid and reliable. This research can be further
extended to measure academician readiness for Education 4.0 tools after confirmatory analysis.

Key words: Technology Readiness Index; Education 4.0; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Nomology Analysis; Academicians.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Rashidah Mokhtar
Articles by Nur Huda Jaafar
Articles by Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong
Articles by Zuriati Ismail
Articles by Mazlyda Abd Rahman
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman. VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS. JCR. 2020; 7(16): 803-810. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106


Web Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman. VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=3918 [Access: June 01, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman. VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS. JCR. 2020; 7(16): 803-810. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman. VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS. JCR. (2020), [cited June 01, 2021]; 7(16): 803-810. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106



Harvard Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman (2020) VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS. JCR, 7 (16), 803-810. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106



Turabian Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman. 2020. VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (16), 803-810. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106



Chicago Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman. "VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS." Journal of Critical Reviews 7 (2020), 803-810. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman. "VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.16 (2020), 803-810. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Rashidah Mokhtar, Nur Huda Jaafar, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong, Zuriati Ismail, Mazlyda Abd Rahman (2020) VALIDITY ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS INDEX USING EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS AND NOMOLOGY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM ACADEMICIAN FOR EDUCATION 4.0 TOOLS. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (16), 803-810. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.106