ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver.

Abstract
The study explores the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement procedure to
elucidate appropriate irradiation conditions for low-level laser therapy for diabetic blood and biostimulaation
effects. The measured EIS error increases with blood dielectric parameters variations and the shift range of
polarization. Indeed, the blood dielectric parameters depend not only on the depletion of the cell membrane but
also on the polarization in erythrocytes and plasma. Blood dielectric spectroscopy (diabetic of glucose range
7.8-11.3 mmol/L and non-diabetic) were analysed using Impedance analyser (Agilent 4294A) within frequency
range 40 Hz-30 MHz. A 532 nm wavelength portable laser (diode-pumped solid-state laser) at 50 mW power
output was used for the irradiation. The results showed that the characterized diabetic blood impedance at 50
mW power output within 10 to 15 minutes of irradiation rejuvenates the deteriorated blood and attains optimal
biostimulation efficacy also improved erythrocytes deformibility. The electrode polarization (α-dispersion
range) extended from frequency 40 Hz to range 11.7-11.9 kHz akin to normal blood. There is higher impedance
experienced in the cytoplasm and blood plasma therefore appropriately moderates glucose concentration
prevents efflux of K+ and calcium ions. This reduces blood coagulation process and the morphology of the bloat
cells to an apt biconcave-like shape.

Key words: Dielectric parameter; diabetic blood; stimulation; electrode polarization; laser


 
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Pubmed Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver. STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION. JCR. 2020; 7(16): 757-766. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102


Web Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver. STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=3878 [Access: June 02, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver. STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION. JCR. 2020; 7(16): 757-766. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver. STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION. JCR. (2020), [cited June 02, 2021]; 7(16): 757-766. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102



Harvard Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver (2020) STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION. JCR, 7 (16), 757-766. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102



Turabian Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver. 2020. STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (16), 757-766. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102



Chicago Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver. "STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION." Journal of Critical Reviews 7 (2020), 757-766. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver. "STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.16 (2020), 757-766. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sylvester J. Gemanam, Nursakinah Suardi, Stephanie M. Adelusi, Daniel Terver (2020) STUDIES OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC BLOOD USING 532 NM WAVELENGTH LASERS IN LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY FOR OPTIMAL BLOOD STIMULATION. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (16), 757-766. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.16.102