ISSN 2394-5125
 

Review Article 


MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER.

Abstract
FOXO (Forkhead box O) transcription factors, member of the forkhead family of proteins, a family which is characterized by the presence of
‘forkhead box’ a conserved DNA binding domain. Multiple environmental and other factors control FOXO activity by altering the various
mechanisms of post-translational, transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications. Regulation of FOXO expression at the posttranscriptional
level came out as a new area of interest in controlling FOXO functions in normal and in cancerous cells. At posttranscriptional level, FOXO
expression is regulated by microRNA and RNA binding proteins (HuR and QKI). MicroRNAs directly target multiple regions of the 3’-UTR of FOXO
mRNA to down regulate its expression. Various miRNAs have been found to regulate expression of FOXO in different physiological and pathological
conditions, including cancer. HuR overexpression in MDA-MB-231, breast cancer cell line results in stabilized FOXO1 mRNA and enhanced level of
the FOXO1 factor. HuR-mediated up-regulation of FOXO1 causes apoptosis in cancer cells, upon exposure to a stressful stimulus. QKI has been found
to reduce the stability of FOXO1 mRNA as well as to alter expression of FOXO1 in breast cancer cells. Collecting evidence suggests that this posttranscriptional
level of regulation of FOXO expression is involved in reactions and adaptations to various stressful conditions. Alteration in FOXO
posttranscriptional regulation is often linked to different disease conditions. Future research has to be done to resolve the complexities of
posttranscriptional regulatory interactions that will create new knowledge about the novel pathways of disease processes and development of
corresponding novel therapeutic molecule.

Key words: FOXO, Posttranscriptional regulation, miRNA, Quaking, HuR


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER. MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION. JCR. 2018; 5(2): 1-9. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774


Web Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER. MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=302644741 [Access: April 17, 2021]. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER. MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION. JCR. 2018; 5(2): 1-9. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER. MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION. JCR. (2018), [cited April 17, 2021]; 5(2): 1-9. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774



Harvard Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER (2018) MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION. JCR, 5 (2), 1-9. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774



Turabian Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER. 2018. MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION. Journal of Critical Reviews, 5 (2), 1-9. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774



Chicago Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER. "MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION." Journal of Critical Reviews 5 (2018), 1-9. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER. "MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION." Journal of Critical Reviews 5.2 (2018), 1-9. Print. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

MOHAMMAD IRSHAD REZA, DIVYA GOEL, ZIAUR RAHMAN, SHAIKH AAMER (2018) MICRORNA AND RNA BINDING PROTEINS: THE POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF FOXO EXPRESSION. Journal of Critical Reviews, 5 (2), 1-9. doi:10.22159/jcr.2018v5i2.24774