ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi.

Abstract
Groundwater recharge in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iraq considered one of the most significant factors
affecting the groundwater aquifer systems behavior. Due to lack of direct measurements of recharge or carrying out of
very detailed field studies (difficult activities), it is an important role for spatial variables in estimation of recharge. The
fluctuation of groundwater is controlled by many factors. It influenced spatially and temporally by the climate change,
soil characteristics, geology, land cover, slope and the depth of groundwater level. Many ways used for calculate or
estimate groundwater recharge, selected of the suitable method depending on the state of the study area, financial,
required accuracy, and available time. In this study, two dimensional geo-statistics interpolation methods (inverse
distance weighted(IDW) and Kriging ) integrated within two dimensional scatter points module in GMS software were
used in order to determine the groundwater distribution over all Iraqi catchment area. The Calculated groundwater
recharge data which used in this models, was obtained from the balance equation which was conducted for all Iraqi
governorates .The balance equation was depended on parameters of rainfall, temperature, evaporation, surplus, and SCS
runoff. The results showed that the best method for predicted groundwater recharge was Kriging method with coefficient
of determination (R2
) equals to 88.80% and with less values of root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE),
and mean absolute error (MAE) which equals to 19.65, 79.59, and 14.36, respectively. Also, the results of groundwater
recharges were converted to contour lines which its values will help the other researchers in hydrology, hydrogeological
and water resources engineering for any study about the groundwater flow and transport of the contaminant.

Key words: hydrology, hydrogeological and water resources engineering


 
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Pubmed Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi. ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM. JCR. 2020; 7(9): 3094-3110. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477


Web Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi. ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=130660 [Access: May 30, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi. ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM. JCR. 2020; 7(9): 3094-3110. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi. ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM. JCR. (2020), [cited May 30, 2021]; 7(9): 3094-3110. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477



Harvard Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi (2020) ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM. JCR, 7 (9), 3094-3110. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477



Turabian Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi. 2020. ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (9), 3094-3110. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477



Chicago Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi. "ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM." Journal of Critical Reviews 7 (2020), 3094-3110. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi. "ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.9 (2020), 3094-3110. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Thair Sharif Khayyun, Hassan Hadi Mahdi (2020) ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE BY USING GROUNDWATER MODELLING SYSTEM (GMS) PROGRAM FOR UPPER ZONE OF IRAQI AQUIFERS SYSTEM. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (9), 3094-3110. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.09.477