ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali.

Abstract
Theileria is an obligate intracellular parasite infecting both domestic as well as wild bovines and small ruminants. In
cattle, the most important species responsible for the infection are T. annulata and T. parva. Theileria parva is
prevalent in 13 Sub-Saharan countries of Africa and causes East Coast Fever (ECF) while T. annulata is prevalent in
Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe and causes Mediterranean or tropical theileriosis. The disease is highly
incident in exotic breeds and crossbred cattle irrespective of age groups in tropical areas. Transmission occurs
through ixodid ticks associated with genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Haemaphysalis. Ticks
have been classified into three families, out of which two families are of veterinary importance viz Argasidae and
Ixodidae, commonly known as soft ticks and hard ticks, respectively. Biochemical and clinical variations, seen in
the disease show relationship to the degree of parasitemia, degree of anemia, and the severity of hypoxia.
Hemoglobin level is adversely affected in positive cases and reduced up to 8mg/dl. In severely infected cases
hemoglobin level is reduced to 3mg/dl. Packed cell volume percentage decreases to 9% and the total erythrocytic
count is reduced to 2.3 million per cm2. Marked clinical signs of theileriosis include lymph nodes enlargement,
anorexia, depression, listlessness, dullness, dyspnoea, pyrexia up to 107F, suppressed cough, ocular and nasal
discharges. In severe cases, diarrhea or dysentery and systemic changes are seen. Control can be achieved using
different means including chemotherapeutic control, biological control, genetic control, and vaccines. The most
authentic and effective control is the use of parasiticidal drugs harmless to the host. But, due to the emergence of
resistance, in some cases the efficacy becomes marginal. However, buparvaquone is found to be the most effective
drug against theileriosis.

Key words: Theileria is an obligate intracellular parasite infecting both domestic as well as wild bovines and small ruminants


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali. A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION. JCR. 2021; 8(3): 53-66. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06


Web Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali. A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=102921 [Access: August 16, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali. A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION. JCR. 2021; 8(3): 53-66. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali. A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION. JCR. (2021), [cited August 16, 2021]; 8(3): 53-66. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06



Harvard Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali (2021) A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION. JCR, 8 (3), 53-66. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06



Turabian Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali. 2021. A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION. Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (3), 53-66. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06



Chicago Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali. "A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION." Journal of Critical Reviews 8 (2021), 53-66. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali. "A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION." Journal of Critical Reviews 8.3 (2021), 53-66. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Arsalan Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Shah Zeb, Syma Arshad, Muhammad Noman, Imran Khan, Safiullah, Abid Ullah, Muhammad Zeeshan, Uzma Ashraf, Ambrina Tariq, Muhammad Rasheed, Abid Hussain, Mubarik Ali (2021) A REVIEW OF THEILERIA INCIDENCE IN CATTLE POPULATION, ITS IMPACT ON HEMATOLOGY OF THE INFECTED ANIMALS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOWARDS THE INFECTION. Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (3), 53-66. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.03.06