ISSN 2394-5125
 

Review Article 


GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung.

Abstract
Geothermal gradient anomaly studies and subsurface temperature mapping play an important role in the estimation of heat flow sources and patterns, and also make a fundamental contribution in the field of geothermal physics, especially methods for geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this study is to measure and mapping the temperature distribution in several subsurface layers in the manifestation of geothermal warm ground and steaming ground, and analyze the geothermal subsurface gradient, to determine the heat source zone, and the pattern and direction of heat flow from subsurface to surface in Hydrothermal area of Minahasa Indonesia. The method used is direct measurement in the field. To determine the coordinates of geothermal manifestations and location mapping, using remote sensing techniques. The results showed that the temperature gradient under the manifestation of geothermal energy increased with increasing depth. The pattern of heat flow in the warm ground manifestation is perpendicular from shallow depths to the surface, while the heat flow pattern under the steaming ground manifestation tends to spread towards the North-East.

Key words: Geothermal Gradient; subsurface temperature; heat flow


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA. JCR. 2020; 7(5): 905-907. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186


Web Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=100992 [Access: August 17, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA. JCR. 2020; 7(5): 905-907. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA. JCR. (2020), [cited August 17, 2021]; 7(5): 905-907. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186



Harvard Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung (2020) GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA. JCR, 7 (5), 905-907. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186



Turabian Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung. 2020. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (5), 905-907. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186



Chicago Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung. "GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA." Journal of Critical Reviews 7 (2020), 905-907. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung. "GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.5 (2020), 905-907. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Donny R. Wenas, Djeli A. Tulandi, Cyrke A. N. Bujung (2020) GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR ESTIMATION OF SOURCES, PATTERNS AND HEAT FLOW DIRECTIONS IN THE HYDROTHERMAL AREA OF MINAHASA INDONESIA. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (5), 905-907. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.05.186