ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA)

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari.

Abstract
TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA) IS THE VALID SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE
INDIAN PHILOSOPHICAL ERA. IT IS THE knowledge derived through the words which are also known as
śabda. It is also called valid testimony i.e. knowledge came from the trustworthy person (āpta) who knows the
truth and presents it correctly. The word Śābda means signifies sound (dhvani) but in the epistemologically
means a meaningful sound or word. It is acceptable as a pramāṇa in the heterodox systems of Indian philosophy
but not accepted by the heterodox systems like Cārvaka, Buddhism, and Vaiśeṣika. This paper is an expedition
on testimony and its relevance in the orthodox schools which is accepted as a pramāṇa, also considered as an
independent pramāṇa. For exploring the arguments on the Independence of Śābdapramāṇa (Testimony), we are
taking only the systems are Jaina, Saṅkhya, Yoga, Nyāya, Mimaṁsa, and Advaita Vedanta. This paper suggests
how testimony becomes an independent pramāṇa and a separate place in Indian philosophy.

Key words: Testimony; Śābdapramāṇa; Pramāṇa; Śabda; Trustworthy person (āpta)


 
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Pubmed Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari. TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA). JCR. 2020; 7(19): 2862-2868. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350


Web Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari. TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA). http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=120747 [Access: September 16, 2020]. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari. TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA). JCR. 2020; 7(19): 2862-2868. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari. TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA). JCR. (2020), [cited September 16, 2020]; 7(19): 2862-2868. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350



Harvard Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari (2020) TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA). JCR, 7 (19), 2862-2868. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350



Turabian Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari. 2020. TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA). Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (19), 2862-2868. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350



Chicago Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari. "TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA)." Journal of Critical Reviews 7 (2020), 2862-2868. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari. "TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA)." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.19 (2020), 2862-2868. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ruby Bharti, Dr. Anil Kumar Tewari (2020) TESTIMONY (ŚĀBDAPRAMĀṆA): AN INDEPENDENT MEANS OF KNOWING (PRAMĀṆA). Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (19), 2862-2868. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.350